On August 8, 2021, for the first time in decades of inertial confinement fusion research, a yield of more than 1.3 megajoules (MJ) was realized. Consequently, researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ( The record shot, according to Omar Hurricane, head scientist for LLNL’s inertial confinement fusion program, “was a tremendous scientific accomplishment in fusion research, establishing that fusion ignition in the lab is conceivable at NIF.” Alpha-particle self-heating outpaces all cooling processes in the fusion plasma, which is a new experimental regime made possible by achieving the conditions necessary for ignition, which has been a long-standing aim for all inertial confinement fusion research.
In-depth descriptions of the outcomes from August 8, 2021 are provided in the articles. The related design, advancements, and experimental measurements are also included. Alex Zylstra, a physicist at LLNL and the main experimentalist and first author of the experimental Physical Review E study, stated that the lab’s first tests in the “burning plasma” zone took place in 2020 and early 2021. The record shot was made possible by these.
To get to the August 8, 2021, photo, we made a number of adjustments from that design, he claimed. The success of the August shot, which is reported in the Physical Review E publications, was made possible by advancements in the physics design and the caliber of the target.
Several significant adjustments were made for this trial, including a better target layout. The key to transitioning between the burning plasma and ignition regimes, according to LLNL physicist Annie Kritcher, principal designer and first author of the design Physical Review E publication, was cutting the coasting-time using more effective hohlraums compared to earlier tests. A smaller fuel fill tube and higher capsule quality made up the other major upgrades.
The researchers have been conducting a number of tests since the experiment in August of last year in an effort to duplicate the performance and comprehend the experimental sensitivities in this new regime.
Kritcher stated that “several factors can affect each experiment.” The quality of targets varies, the ice layer builds at different rates on each target, and the 192 laser beams do not behave precisely the same from shot to shot. These tests provide the chance to explore and comprehend the inherent heterogeneity in this novel, delicate experimental environment.
Despite not achieving the same amount of fusion yield as the experiment in August 2021, the repeat efforts all showed capsule gains larger than unity. They have produced yields in the 430–700 kJ range, which is much more than the maximum yield recorded previously, which was 170 kJ in February 2021. The information gathered from this and other trials is supplying vital hints as to what worked well and what adjustments are required in order to not just duplicate but also outperform that experiment in the future. The experimental data is also being used by the researchers to gain a better understanding of the basic fusion ignition and burn processes. Additionally, they are enhancing simulation tools to aid with stockpile stewardship.
In order to advance over the ignition cliff and into a more stable zone where general patterns observed in this new experimental domain can be better isolated from variability in targets and laser performance, the research team is leveraging the gathered experimental data and simulations.
By enhancing the laser and the targets, efforts are being made to improve fusion performance and resilience. Additionally, they are developing architectural changes that will enhance energy delivery to the hotspot even more while keeping or possibly raising the hot-spot pressure. This covers a variety of approaches, such as enhancing the fusion fuel’s compression and quantity.
Having a “existence proof” of ignition in the lab is quite thrilling, said Hurricane. We’re working in a system that hasn’t been available to researchers since the cessation of nuclear testing, which is a fantastic chance to learn more as we advance.
LLNL’s) National Ignition Facility (NIF) reached scientific ignition while approaching the fusion gain barrier.
The scientific findings of this record experiment have been released in three peer-reviewed articles on the occasion of this historic accomplishment’s one-year anniversary. Two papers and one were published in Physical Review E and Physical Review Letters, respectively. More than 1,000 authors contributed to the Physical Review Letters study in order to recognize and give credit to the numerous people who worked tirelessly for many years to make this important advancement possible.
“Lawson Criterion for Ignition Exceeded in an Inertial Fusion Experiment” by H. Abu-Shawareb et al. (Indirect Drive ICF Collaboration), 8 August 2022, Physical Review Letters.
“Experimental achievement and signatures of ignition at the National Ignition Facility” by A. B. Zylstra et al., 8 August 2022, Physical Review E.
“Design of an inertial fusion experiment exceeding the Lawson criterion for ignition” by A. L. Kritcher et al., 8 August 2022, Physical Review E.